Independent Study and Capstone Courses

Independent Study and Capstone Options for Bioengineering Majors

Bioengineering majors are encouraged to work on group or individual projects doing scientific research or engineering design, and all students are required to do a capstone project, examples of which can be found on the Capstone Projects page.

There are several course numbers set up for organizing independent study and capstone work. Some of the courses are 5 units, which require 15 hours of work a week for 10–11 weeks (150–165 hours total), while others are 2 units (6 hours a week, or 60–66 hours total).

All 5-unit independent study courses are require to have a written report at the end of each quarter, to be evaluated by the faculty member supervising the independent study. All 2-unit independent study courses should have some form of end-of-quarter report for evaluation by the faculty member, but it may be much more informal than for 5-unit independent studies, at the discretion of the faculty member supervising the work—often one-on-one verbal reports from the student are acceptable.

Any reference to "faculty member" here includes not only Academic Senate faculty, but also lecturers and some senior research staff.

How students register for independent study courses (see

  1. Students must meet with a faculty member who will be supervising the course and agree on a plan of work.
  2. The student and faculty member must fill out an independent-study form (available from the BSoE advising office). Included on this form is a due date for end-of-quarter report (usually the first day of exam week).
  3. Get the form signed by the undergrad director for your major. This is generally a very quick check, as independent studies are routine for bioengineering majors.
  4. Drop off the form at the BSoE undergraduate advising office, where you will be issued the numeric codes needed for registering for the course.

Note: for thesis research (BME 195), you need to have a thesis proposal (a page or two) approved by the undergraduate director before your first registration for BME 195. This is not a rubberstamp approval, and it often takes a couple of iterations to get an acceptable thesis proposal, so the process should be done before the first quarter of the thesis starts.

Independent Study Course numbers and what they mean:

There are many different independent-study course numbers, with subtly different meanings. Each comes in two sizes: a 5-unit course, for which 15 hours a week of work is expected (150–165 hours total) and a 2-unit course, for which 6 hours a week of work is expected (60–66 hours total).

It is also possible for students to work in a research lab without getting academic credit (a particularly common choice for the summer, to avoid paying extra tuition). When students are not getting credit, the amount of work expected and any reporting requirements are matters for negotiation between the faculty member and the student, not set by program policy.

BME 94 (5 units) and 94F (2 units): Group tutorial
These course numbers are intended for groups of lower-division (freshman or sophomore) students working together being supervised by a faculty member. They are also used for prototyping new lower-division courses, before the courses get approval by the Academic Senate's Committee oindividauln Educational Policy.
BME 99 (5 units) and 99F (2 units): Tutorial
These course numbers are intended for individual lower-division students being supervised by a faculty member.
BME 193 (5 units) and 193F (2 units): Field Study
These course numbers are intended for students doing work that is not on campus. Quite often this work is supervised primarily by someone who is not a UCSC faculty member, but a UCSC faculty member is needed to evaluate the work and file the grades.
BME 194 (5 units) and 194F (2 units): Group Tutorial
These course numbers are intended for groups of upper-division (junior or senior) students working together being supervised by a faculty member for projects that are not covered by capstone courses. They are also used for prototyping new upper-division courses, before the courses get approval by the Academic Senate's Committee on Educational Policy.
BME 195 (5 units) and 195F (2 units): Senior Thesis Research
These course numbers are intended for senior thesis research, one of the capstone options. A senior thesis requires 15 units of BME 195 (or 195F), plus 2 units of BME 123T, the senior thesis writing course. Each quarter of BME 195 should result in a draft of the thesis, to be evaluated and given feedback on by the faculty member supervising the thesis. BME 123T is normally taken in the middle of the senior thesis (Winter quarter), to work specifically on polishing the writing—there should already be a substantially complete first draft (except results) before BME 123T starts.
Completing the senior thesis capstone requirement requires passing 15 units of Senior Thesis Research, passing BME 123T, and submitting the thesis in PDF format as part of the senior portfolio.
BME 198 (5 units) and 198F (2 units): Individual Study and Research
These course numbers are intended for individual upper-division (junior or senior) students being supervised by a faculty member for projects that are not covered by capstone courses or senior theses. It is very common for a student to sign up for a 2-unit 198F course when first joining a lab, to try out the "fit" with only a 6-hour weekly committment, not a 15-hour one.

Capstone options:

Bioengineering students have three capstone options:

  • senior thesis,
  • iGEM synthetic biology project, or
  • group capstone project

These three options are outlined before

Senior thesis

A senior thesis is a single-author written document that provides a detailed description of about a year's intensive research by the individual research. It is not appropriate for team projects, which are handled through the other capstone options.

The senior thesis is recommended for students who plan to continue on to PhD programs in graduate school, as the senior thesis is deliberately structured like a miniature version of a PhD thesis, and so provides excellent training for grad school. The thesis option also provides the most intensive writing practice and training of the capstone options, which is also particularly valuable for those continuing to graduate school.

The senior thesis option is available in all concentrations, and the faculty adviser can be any faculty member at UCSC who has relevant expertise. The adviser can even be outside UCSC (in which case students register for BME 193 instead of BME 195), as long as there is a UCSC faculty member willing to review the work and issue grades as the instructor of record.

Many of the senior theses are funded by grants managed by the faculty adviser, but this is not an essential feature of the thesis—a faculty member may agree to supervise a project without agreeing to fund it. Be sure you are clear on the source of funding for your research before committing to a thesis project.

Thesis proposal:

Before starting a senior thesis a one- or two-page thesis proposal is required. Send the proposal to the undergraduate director ( as a plain-text or PDF file.

This proposal is essentially a first draft of the introduction to the thesis, starting with a research question or design goal, a tiny explanation for why that is worth doing, and what experiments of prototypes will be done to answer the question or achieve the design goal.

Note that the question or goal is for this specific thesis and must be reasonably completable in a year—it cannot be a vague description of research field nor a life work. It is not the goal of the lab where the research will be done, but the goal for this one-person project. The goal needs to be very clear and specific, so that someone reading the final thesis can tell whether or not the goal was met or the question answered.

The thesis proposal should also say who the faculty supervisor is, and that they have read and approved the thesis proposal.

The undergraduate director will be looking for a clear statement of the goal of the thesis in the first paragraph of the proposal. If the first paragraph is just background or vague descriptions of the topic, the proposal will be need to be rewritten.

Thesis expectations:

A senior thesis is a single-author work whose main goal is to establish that the author is capable of carrying out a substantial research project. As such, it should be written in the first-person singular, past tense ("I extracted DNA with the following protocol ...") not passive voice and not plural, unless specific other participants are identified ("Postdoc X and I ...").

The audience for a thesis is not the faculty adviser nor the other members of the research group. In many cases they know more about the subject than the author, so writing for them is an exercise in frustration. Instead, the proper audience to write for is bioengineering majors who might join the lab to continue the project. Basic knowledge from lower-division courses can be assumed, but details of the particular problems and protocols of the lab need to be spelled out in the thesis.

The main body of the thesis has several parts:

  • An introduction, which sets out the research question (for a science thesis) or design goal (for an engineering thesis) of the thesis, and explains why the goal is interesting or important, and how the work done for the thesis answers the question or achieves the design goal. This introductory chapter is essentially a more fleshed-out version of the thesis proposal required before the thesis research is started. Don't bury the lede! The first paragraph of the thesis or thesis proposal should include the research question or design goal—subsequent paragraphs can expand on and clarify the initial question.
  • Background chapter or chapters explaining what has been done previously on the topic, including explanations of the major lab techniques that will be used.
  • Chapters on the lab or design work actually done for the thesis, including things that went wrong and how the problems the arose were addressed. Because the point of a thesis is to show that the student is capable of research, it is important to include descriptions of the debugging process used, not just the final results that "worked". This is quite different from a journal paper, where space limitations require cutting out all the dead ends. The research chapters should be logically organized with experimental methods, results, and discussion of the results placed close together, not widely separated. In most theses, results from one experiment drive the choice of which other experiments to do, so it is important to describe and interpret the results as you go, not leaving that to a later section. (Note: some journal styles in biology call for separating methods, results, and discussion, under the general assumption that the methods consist only of routine procedures whose description would interfere with understanding the results of the experiments—that is a very different style than what is called for in a thesis.)
  • A concluding chapter summarizing the results of the thesis, and describing what needs to be done next (either to finish answering the original question or to answer new questions that came up as a result of doing the research).
  • An optional appendix containing detailed information that may be useful to some readers of the thesis, but which would interfere with the flow of information in the main body. This can include lab protocols, software, additional data that was collected, and other supplementary information.

Each quarter of BME 195 should end with the student turning in a draft of the thesis to the research adviser. In the first quarter, this draft should contain a complete introduction and background, and a research plan detailing what needs to be done to complete the thesis. At the end of the second quarter, the thesis draft should be well polished and nearly complete, with only a few results to be slotted in from the final quarter of work, and interpretation of those results.

Students doing a senior thesis are required to take BME 123T, a 2-unit intensive writing course, which is intended to help students polish their writing. BME123T is offered in winter quarters, which coincides with the second quarter of the thesis research for most students. It is essential that students start BME 123T with a first draft of the thesis, as the goal of the course is to edit the thesis and improve the writing, not to create a first draft.

iGEM synthetic biology project

The group project in synthetic biology is a capstone intended for the biomolecular concentration, as it involves manipulating cells to do something that they do not normally do. The goal is usually to produce a substance or behavior in unicellular organisms that is not native to the organism. The overall goal may be highly ambitious (such as producing butanol as a fuel from digestion of cellulose), but the project for a single year needs to be realisticly attainable in one summer of intense work (such as introducing one or two steps of the butanol-synthesis pathway into a bateria strain).

Students join the iGEM team by signing up for BME 180 (2 units) in spring quarter and BME 188A–B (5 units each) in summer quarter. Signing up for BME 188 is by interview only—students have to show that they will be productive members of the team during BME 180 in order to continue.

The synthetic biology project is available only on a spring and summer schedule, because it is synchronized with the international iGEM competition, which has their main event to present results at the end of September.

An important part of the syhtetic biology project is learning how to fund projects—students are taught how to request funds from various internal University sources and how to do crowd-funding. The bulk of the funding for the projects comes from crowd-funding.

CMPE/EE 129A–C group capstone project

Many CMPE and EE group capstone projects are suitable for students with concentrations in bioelectronics and assistive technology: motor, though they may need to take an extra course beyond the major requirement to satisfy all the prerequisites for the capstone course. These projects usually combine hardware and software design with a multi-disciplinary team of engineers.

Some projects are funded by donations from industry, while others are funded by the students themselves. Student-generated projects generally require more fund-raising effort on the part of the students, as the industrially sponsored projects are usually proposed by the sponsor.

BME 123A–B group capstone project

The BME 123A–B capstone is a mixture of projects that don't fall into any of the preceding categories. Biomolecular projects for BME 123A and B are often proposed as part of BME 150, which is a strict prerequisite for such projects. Most of the projects are biomolecular group projects, and the instructors for BME 123A and B are chosen for their expertise in supervising biomolecular projects.

Group projects in the other concentrations are also possible, but students are responsible for defining the project and creating the project team and finding a supervisor for the project, before BME 123A starts.

Students are also responsible for finding funding for their group capstone projects, though occasionally some projects suggested by faculty will have funding available.

Students in BME 123A and B generally do formal oral presentations and poster presentations of their work, but do not always write a formal written report.